The delicate spongy tissue found in the interior of the bones is known as bone marrow. From this the blood cells of the body develop and get stored. The blood cells which gives rise to other blood cells are known as stem cells. Pluripotent stem cell is one of the most primitive of its kind, in that it helps in the differentiation and renewal of other cells. The stem cells are extremely important in any bone marrow transplant program.
With the property of renewal, the cells of the bone marrow gives rise to another identical cell. And with the ability to differentiate it gives rise to one or more subsets of mature cells. Obviously the need for the transplant of bone marrow in a person is to treat diseases, and mainly the various types of cancer. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy along with many other medications that are usually given to a cancer patient, has a lot of serious side effects. Often the dosage of the same are quite high to inflict temporary or permanent damage to destroy the bone marrow tissues in the patient. Let us see a few of the diseases where bone marrow transplant becomes essential. Bone marrow transplant in India is done by the best medical professionals and surgeons. Needless to say it is quite cost effective than in other European countries.
- Obviously the first function is to replace the non functioning, diseased and damaged bone marrow with a functioning, healthy and mature bone marrow. This is mostly done for conditions such as aplastic anemia, leukemia, sickle cell anemia.
- The bone marrow transplant naturally rejuvenates and resurrects the damaged immune system and provides it with utmost strength to fight the existing or residual types of cancer cells, which cannot be damaged by radiation or chemotherapy.
- A bone marrow can be replaced with some genetically healthy, working bone marrow from a donor, in order to stop the damage being processed from the existing disease. In case of Hurler’s syndrome or adrenoleukodystrophy, a bone marrow replacement is inevitable.
- With the help of the process of rescue, the existing damaged bone marrow can be replaced, in order to restore its normal operative functions. The high doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy generally used to treat the malignancy is one of the prime causes of bone marrow damage.
- Diseases such as leukemia, lymphomas, immune deficiency disorders, severe aplastic anemia, multiple myeloma, solid tumor cancers can be effectively treated with the help of replacement of the damaged bone marrow. However there are both risks and benefits for the treatment of the disease, and hence there must be a detailed discussion regarding both, before you go for the operative process. Depending on the severity of the disease an operative treatment is generally prescribed.
There are many different types of bone marrow transplants, and it largely depends upon the kind of donor. There is autologous bone marrow transplant and allergenic bone marrow transplant, as the two most important types. The allogeneic bone marrow transplant can include a parent, or an unrelated bone marrow transplant.